What Are the 5 Types of Construction?

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types of construction

Whether you work in the building industry or are just curious about what makes up a structure, understanding the 5 types of construction can be helpful. They can help you understand safety, structural integrity, fire resistance and restoration approaches.

Building construction types are categorised based on the combustibility and fire resistance of the structural, interior and exterior elements. This enables builders to design and build structures that are both safe for occupants and preserve the property in the event of fire.

1. Fire-Resistive Structures

Buildings that are fire-resistant tend to be taller and made of concrete or protected steel. They also typically have a roof that is noncombustible.

In the event of a fire, firefighters may need to ventilate these buildings to prevent flashover, an increase in temperature that could cause them to collapse. Knowing the construction type of a building can help firefighters plan their strategy for ventilation and water, so they can focus on saving lives rather than trying to extinguish a fire.

While wood is naturally flammable, it can be treated to slow down the fire’s progress and allow time for firefighters to extinguish the flames or evacuate the building. Treated cellulose insulation acts as an effective barrier that keeps heat from reaching the interior.

2. High-Rise Structures

High-rise structures are buildings that are taller than 75 feet (23 m). These structures usually include skyscrapers and tower blocks.

The structural systems of these buildings are designed to resist different loads and provide the building with strength. Just like human bones, if a structural system is not built correctly, it will not perform properly.

Structural systems are very complex and require a great deal of analysis. A computer model can be used to determine how a structure will behave when subjected to various loads.

3. Industrial

Industrial structures are a special type of construction that includes factories, power plants and warehouses. These specialized structures require unique levels of expertise, planning and materials.

Industrial building projects are huge undertakings that take size and scope to a whole new level. They involve designing, installing and maintaining the structural and mechanical components of these facilities.

Construction leaders need to be experts in everything from the site selection process to meeting zoning rules and regulations. They also need to ensure that the structure meets a high standard of safety for the people who work and live there.

4. Highway

Heavy highway construction professionals build roads, bridges, and ports. Trained in math skills and knowledge of heavy equipment operations, safety, earthmoving, hand tools and traffic regulations, these workers are responsible for building and maintaining the infrastructure that keeps our world moving.

In addition to the structures that support the road, highways also include drains and ditches that manage stormwater runoff. A well-designed drainage system is important for a number of reasons, including improving the structure’s performance and preventing costly damage to the road.

Wind is another potential threat to highway structures, particularly for elongated flexible elements like bridge decks and cables. The collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940 prompted significant research into methods for designing structures to resist wind effects. These techniques involve combining climatological data with design standards.

5. Residential

Residential structures are buildings that are intended for people to live in. They can include single-family homes, multi-family houses, condominiums, apartments, mobile homes, and more.

They can also be buildings that are used for business purposes and can include office buildings, malls, and other retail establishments.

Construction of these types of buildings can be quite expensive, so they can take a long time to finish. This is because there are many tradespeople that work on them, such as electricians and HVAC technicians.

They can be made from a variety of materials, including wood-frame, masonry, and steel. The most common is wood-frame, which is inexpensive and lightweight. It can also withstand earthquakes and high winds. However, it isn’t as durable as masonry. It can also be very heavy.